Another name of coordinate bond is the dative covalent bond.  This bond is formed from two atoms sharing one pair of electrons. These atoms are usually held together because the pair of the electrons are attracted by the two nuclei. There are some occasions that simple covalent bonds are formed. In such situation, such bonds are formed when every particular atom donates one electron to form a bond. However, it is not mandatory that the atoms should be similar (Coordinate [Dative covalent] bonding para. 1). This is a covalent bond because it consists of pairs of electrons that are shared and those that are from one common atom.

Coordinate covalent bonds are mostly associated or occur in acids and basis.  One example of a molecule that contains this bond is ammonium ions NH4+. Ammonium is a colorless gas (Kim 45).  Ammonium ions are formed when the hydrogen ions that come from hydrogen chloride is transferred or moved to the molecule of ammonia from a single pair of electrons (Coordinate [Dative covalent] bonding para. 1). This happens when ammonia and hydrogen chlorides are mixed.  This mixture results to chemical reactions that emits a white smoke referred to as solid ammonium chloride.

In the formation of ammonium Ion, the fourth hydrogen that comes from hydrogen chloride is joined or attached by a covalent bond [dative]. This is because; the hydrogen nucleus is the ones that is taken from chlorine and transformed into nitrogen. Therefore, electrons from hydrogen that is left by chlorine changed into negative chloride ions.

The moment the ammonium ions have been formed it becomes easier to differentiate between the ordinary covalent, bonds and the dative covalent.   These can be represented on a diagram. In a diagram, electrons are normally shown differently but in reality the difference between these two electronics is nonexistence (Kim 45). It is also possible to show or demonstrated how a coordinate bond looks like in a diagram.  An arrow is usually used to show this bond.  The sharp arrow is directed or comes from an atom which gives/donates the single pair.

These ammonium ions can also be generated by reacting ammonia which is a weak base with bronsted acids.

H+ + NH3 → NH4+

                Ammonium ions are also mildly acidic and when they react with bronsted which is a base they change to uncharged molecules of ammonia. Therefore, concentrated solutions of ammonia salts can be treated using strong bases like bronsted to produce ammonia. It is also possible to dissolve ammonia in water to produce or to convert small amounts of water into ammonium ions (Peifeng and Hui 21)

H3O+ + NH3 H2O + NH4+

One important factors that determines the degree to which ammonium is able to form into/change to ammonium ions is the pH of the solution.  In case the pH of the solution is low, the equilibrium normally shifts to the right as more ammonia molecules are easily converted to the ammonium ions. On the other hand, when the pH of a solution is high meaning that that concentration of hydrogen ions is a bit low, the equilibrium normally shifts to the left.  This implies that hydrogen ions hinder release of protons from the ammonium ions hence leading to generation of ammonia.

Ammonium compounds can also be formed or occur in vapor phases when hydrogen chloride vapor rise with the ammonia vapor. It is also possible to convert ammonium back to ammonia through addition of a strong base on it (Fux 17).


Works Cited

Coordinate [Dative covalent] bonding. Retrieved from:

Fux, Samuel et al. Accurate frozen-density embedding potentials as a first step towards a  ubsystem description of covalent bonds, Journal of Chemical Physics, 132.16(2010):             16-25. Print.

Kim, Koo. Interplay of hydrogen-bond and coordinate covalentbondinteractions in self- assembly of NH3 molecules on the Si (001) surface, Physical Review Letters [Phys Rev          Lett], 100.25 (2008): 45-56. Print.

Peifeng Su and Hui Li.  Energy decomposition analysis of covalent bonds and intermolecular       interactions, Journal of Chemical Physics, 131.1(2009): 21-30. Print.



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Why does adding value to the firm and creating returns for shareholders in the short run and long run matter?


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“Inside Out” Study Guide: Understanding Emotions. © Abigail Burd, LCSW, 2015. May not be republished in print, online or in social media. Share by linking to for free download. May be printed individually for use in therapy or classes.

An “Inside Out” (Disney/Pixar) Study Guide: Understanding Emotions

1. When we meet Riley, most of the time Joy is in charge of her thoughts and personality. Which emotion(s) do you feel most often? 2. Riley and her family go through a lot of changes when they move from Minnesota to San Francisco. Have you ever gone through a big transition? 3. How are the glowing balls, or “core memories” made? What are yours? 4. What do the core memories have to do with Riley’s personality? 5. When Sadness touches one of the happy core memories, she colors it blue. What do you think is going on then? Is it possible that our current moods can color our past memories? Or how we define our personality?

“Inside Out” Study Guide: Understanding Emotions. © Abigail Burd, LCSW, 2015. May not be republished in print, online or in social media. Share by linking to for free download. May be printed individually for use in therapy or classes.

6. Do you think that the core memories were changed forever or was there a temporary filter on them? 7. When Riley’s mother tells her that she is helping her parents by being their “happy girl,” Riley feels pressure to only show them her joy. What do you think of this? 8. Do you think that our society values certain emotions over others? Which ones? 9. At the end of the movie, Joy learns that other emotions, especially Sadness, are also important. Why? 10. Do you think it is easier for males or females, or for younger or older people, to express different emotions? Which ones? Why?


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Your initial discussion thread is due on Day 3 (Thursday) and you have until Day 7 (Monday) to respond to your classmates. Your grade will reflect both the quality of your initial post and the depth of your responses. Refer to the Discussion Forum Grading Rubric under the Settings icon above for guidance on how your discussion will be evaluated.

Language Acquisition

Prior to beginning this discussion, please read the following required articles:

“Language Acquisition Socialization: Sociocognitive and Complexity Theory Perspectives”

“The Learning Brain: Lessons for Education: A Précis”

“The Cultural-Historical Foundations of the Zone of Proximal Development”

“Self-Determination, Self-Regulation, and the Brain: Autonomy Improves Performance by Enhancing Neuroaffective Responsiveness to Self-Regulation Failure”

“Acquisition, Learning, or Development of Language? Skinner’s ‘Verbal Behavior’ Revisited”

“Linguistic variation and micro-cues in first language acquisition.”

Based on your resources this week, choose three areas of language acquisition that you found most interesting and that were unknown to you prior to this week.

In your initial post,

Explain the theoretical perspectives of each of these chosen areas.

Apply skeptical inquiry to a brief discussion about why language acquisition is an important area for scholars and educators to understand when developing learning opportunities.

Apply the concept of language acquisition to your own academic success. Has your own language development affected your success as a student? As an employee? How? Based on the resources and your current knowledge, do you believe you could develop areas of language acquisition, personally, that would be beneficial to you, your loved ones, or your friends?

Your initial post should be at least 500 words in length and thoroughly discuss each of the elements in the prompt.


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